2014 Table of Contents

Preface

History of the SFF Symposium to Celebrate Its 25th Anniversary

Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, An Overview
H.L. Marcus, University of Connecticut, Storrs
(page 1)

Process Development

Homogenizing the Melt Pool Intensity Distribution in the SLM Process through System Identification and Feedback Control
S. Buls, S. Clijsters, J-P. Kruth, University of Leuven (KU Leuven)
(page 6)

Novel Machine and Measurement Concept for Micro Machining by Selective Laser Sintering
M. Erler, A. Streek, C. Schulze, H. Exner, Laserinstitut Hochschule Mittweida
(page 12)

Micro Laser Melting: Analyses of Current Potentials and Restrictions for the Additive Manufacturing of Micro Structures
J. Fischer, M. Kniepkamp, E. Abele, Technische Universität Darmstadt
(page 22)

A Dry Powder Material Delivery Device for Multiple Material Additive Manufacturing
S. Chianrabutra, B.G. Mellor, S. Yang, University of Southampton
(page 36)

Three-Dimensional In-Process Temperature Measurement of Laser Sintered Part Cakes
S. Josupeit, H-J. Schmid, University of Paderborn
(page 49)

Characterization of In-Situ Conductive Paste Extrusion on Polyjet Substrates
K.B. Perez, C.B. Williams, Virginia Tech
(page 59)

Mechanisms for Post Processing Deformation without Part-Specific Tooling
J. Nussbaum, N.B. Crane, University of South Florida
(page 75)

Residual Stress Reduction in High Pressure Interpass Rolled Wire+Arc Additive Manufacturing Ti-6Al-4V Components
F. Martinaa, M. Royb, P. Colegrovea, S.W. Williamsa, aCranfield University, bThe University of Manchester
(page 89)

Object Shaping of Polystyrene with a Sonotrode
J. Tilli, G. Fantoni, S. Currenti, A.V. Razionale, University of Pisa
(page 95)

Investigation on the Performance of Multi-Layer Printed Conductive Tracks on Multi-Layer Printed Insulator
B. Liu, C. Tuck, E. Saleh, I. Ashcroft, R. Wildman, R. Hague, University of Nottingham
(page 110)

Additive Manufacturing with RepRap Methodology: Current Situation and Future Prospects
L. Romeroa, A. Guerreroa, M. M. Espinosaa, M. Jiménezb, I.A. Domíngueza, M. Domíngueza, aUniversidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), bComillas University
(page 120)

Effect of Greyscale/Print Density on the Properties of High Speed Sintered Nylon 12
C.J. Noble, A. Ellis, N. Hopkinson, The University of Sheffield
(page 132)

Investigation of Advanced Process Control Methods for Exposure Controlled Projection Lithography
X. Zhao, D.W. Rosen, Georgia Institute of Technology
(page 143)

Ceramics 3D Printing by Selective Inhibition Sintering
B. Khoshnevisa, J. Zhanga, M. Faterib, Z.C. Xiaoa, aUniversity of Southern California, bFH Aachen
(page 163)

How Can Material Jetting Systems Be Upgraded for More Efficient Multi-Material Additive Manufacturing?
M. Baumers, C. Tuck, P. Dickens, R. Hague, University of Nottingham
(page 170)

Cooperative Fabrication Methodology for Embedding Wire on Curved Surfaces
C.Y. Kim, A. Cuaron, M.A. Perez, D. Espalin, E. MacDonald, R.B. Wicker, The University of Texas at El Paso
(page 185)

A Comparison of Binder Burnout and Mechanical Characteristics of Printed and Chemically Bonded Sand Molds
D. Snelling, C. Williams, A. Druschitz, Virginia Tech
(page 197)

A Novel Metamorphic Mechanism for Efficient Additive Manufacturing of Components with Variable Wall Thickness
Y. Xie, H. Zhang, G. Wang, F. Zhou, Huazhong University of Science and Technology
(page 210)

A Mechanical Testing Methodology for Metal Additive Manufacturing Processes
S. Dongare, T.E. Sparks, J. Newkirk, F. Liou, Missouri University of Science and Technology
(page 224)

Layerwise Monitoring of Polymer Laser Sintering Using Thermal Imaging
M. Abdelrahman, T.L. Starr, University of Louisville
(page 244)

Melt Pool Characterization for Selective Laser Melting of Ti-6Al-4V Pre-alloyed Powder
H. Gonga, H. Gua, K. Zenga, J.J.S. Dilipa, D. Pala, B. Stuckera, D. Christiansenb, J. Beuthb, J.J. Lewandowskic, aUniversity of Louisville, bCarnegie Mellon University, cCase Western Reserve University
(page 256)

Surface Treatment of Ti6Al4V Parts Made by Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing Processes using Electropolishing
L. Yang, H. Gu, A. Lassell, University of Louisville
(page 268)

Sensing Defects during Directed-Energy Additive Manufacturing of Metal Parts using Optical Emissions Spectroscopy
A.R. Nassar, T.J. Spurgeon, E.W. Reutzel, Pennsylvania State University
(page 278)

Installation and Thermal Feedback from a Multi-Wavelength Pyrometer in Electron Beam Melting
J. Minjaresa, J. Mirelesa, S.M. Gaytana, D. Espalina, W.T. Carterb, R.B. Wickera, aThe University of Texas at El Paso, bGE Global Research
(page 288)

Development of Novel EBSM System for High-Tech Material Additive Manufacturing Research
C. Guo, F. Lin, W.J. Ge, J. Zhang, Tsinghua University
(page 298)

A Survey of Sensing and Control Systems for Machine and Process Monitoring of Directed-Energy, Metal-Based Additive Manufacturing
E.W. Reutzel, A.R. Nassar, Pennsylvania State University
(page 309)

Calibration of a Piezo-Electric Printhead in the Selective Inhibition Sintering (SIS) Process for Fabrication of High Quality Metallic Parts
P. Torabi, M. Petros, B. Khoshnevis, University of Southern California
(page 323)

Additive Manufacturing of 1018 Steel: Process Observations and Calculations
C.M. Knappab, T.J. Lienertb, C. Chenb, D. Kovara, aThe University of Texas at Austin, bLos Alamos National Laboratory
(page 334)

Automatic Layerwise Acquisition of Thermal and Geometric Data of the Electron Beam Melting Process using Infrared Thermography
S. Ridwan, J. Mireles, S.M. Gaytan, D. Espalin, R.B. Wicker, The University of Texas at El Paso
(page 343)

An Evaluation of Cross-Sectional Image Generation Schemes in the Selective Inhibition Sintering (SIS) Process
M. Petros, P. Torabi, B. Khoshnevis, University of Southern California
(page 353)

Effect of Scan Pattern on the Microstructural Evolution of Inconel 625 during Selective Laser Melting
Md.A. Anam, J.J.S. Dilip, D. Pal, B. Stucker, University of Louisville
(page 363)

High Resolution Laser Melting with Brilliant Radiation
A. Streek, P. Regenfuss, H. Exner, Hochschule Mittweida
(page 377)

Materials

Benchmarking of Different Powder-Bed Metal Fusion Processes for Machine Selection in Additive Manufacturing
E. Yasa, F. Demir, G. Akbulut, N. Cızıoğlu, S. Pilatin, TUSAS Engine Industries, Inc.
(page 390)

Comparison of AlSi10Mg and Al 6061 Processed Through DMLS
B.A. Fulchera, D.K. Leigha, T.J. Wattb, aHarvest Technologies, bThe University of Texas at Austin
(page 404)

Processability of High Strength Aluminium-Copper Alloys AW-2022 and 2024 by Laser Beam Melting in Powder Bed
M. Karga, B. Ahujaa, S. Kuryntsevb, A. Gorunovb M. Schmidta, aFriedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, bKazan National Research Technical University
(page 420)

Characterization of Acoustic Softening of Aluminum 6061 within a Plasticity Framework
Q. Mao, N. Coutris, G. Fadel, Clemson University
(page 437)

Wire+Arc Additive Manufacturing of Aluminium
J. Guab, B. Congac, J. Dinga, S.W. Williamsa, Y. Zhaib, aCranfield University, bNortheastern University, cBeihang University
(page 451)

Microstructural Characterization and Modeling of Beam Speed Effects on Ti-6Al-4V by Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing
X. Gonga, J. Lydonb, K. Cooperb, K. Choua, aThe University of Alabama, bMarshall Space Flight Center
(page 459)

Effects of Powder Variation on the Microstructure and Tensile Strength of Ti6Al4V Parts Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting
H. Gua, H. Gonga, J.J.S. Dilipa, D. Pala, A. Hicksb, H. Doakb, B. Stuckera, aUniversity of Louisville, bMound Laser & Photonics Center
(page 470)

Investigation of Forged-Like Microstructure Produced by A Hybrid Manufacturing Process
R. Francis, J.W. Newkirk, F. Liou, Missouri University of Science and Technology
(page 484)

The Effect of Scan Pattern on Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties in Electron Beam Melting Ti47Al2Cr2Nb
W. Ge, F. Lin, C. Guo, Tsinghua University
(page 500)

Expanding the Applicability of FDM-Type Technologies through Materials Development
D.A. Roberson, C.M. Shemelya, E. MacDonald, R.B. Wicker, University of Texas at El Paso
(page 514)

Monotonic and Cyclic Tensile Properties of ABS Components Fabricated by Additive Manufacturing
C.W. Ziemiana, D.E. Cipolettia, S.N. Ziemianb, M.N. Okwaraa, K.V. Hailea, aBucknell University, bDuke University
(page 525)

Investigation of Sparse Build Rapid Tooling by Fused Deposition Modeling
O. Iyibilgina, M.C. Leub, G. Taylorb, H. Lib, K. Chandrashekharab, aSakarya University, bMissouri University of Science and Technology
(page 542)

Processing and Characterizations of Eucalyptus-PA12 Composite by Laser Sintering
K. Jiangab, Y. Guoa, D.L. Bourellb, aNortheast Forestry University, bThe University of Texas at Austin
(page 557)

Effect of Second-Phase Doping on Laser Deposited Al2O3 Ceramics
F.Y. Niua, D.J. Wua, G.Y. Maa, S.Y. Zhoua, B. Zhangab, aDalian University of Technology, bUniversity of Connecticut
(page 568)

A Preliminary Study of the Graded Dental Porcelain Ceramic Structures Fabricated via Binder Jetting 3D Printing
H. Miyanaji, L. Yang, S. Zhang, A. Zandinejad, University of Louisville
(page 578)

Characterizing Three Dimensional Microstructures Formed by Particles: An Example of Electrophotographic Printing Toner
D. Bai, V.R. Patil, M. Esterman, S. Chang, Rochester Institute of Technology
(page 590)

EBM Fabrication and Characterization of High Purity Niobium for Superconductor Applications
C.A. Terrazasa, S.M. Gaytana, J. Mirelesa, P. Frigolab, D. Espalina, R.B. Wickera, aThe University of Texas at El Paso, bRadiaBeam Technologies
(page 605)

Effect of Process Parameters and Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of SLM-Built HY100 Steel
J.J.S. Dilip, B. Stucker, T.L. Starr, University of Louisville
(page 617)

Research on Microstructure and Properties of Medium Carbon Steel Parts Manufactured by HDMR Technology
H. Zhang, H. Jian, G. Wang, H. Qi, Y. Xie, Huazhong University of Science and Technology
(page 628)

Applications

Fatigue Analysis in Selective Laser Melting: Review and Investigation of Thin-Walled Actuator Housings
H.A. Stoffregenab, K. Butterwecka, E. Abeleab, aTechnische Universität Darmstadt, bLOEWE Research Center AdRIA
(page 635)

Experimental Assisted Design Development for a 3D Reticulate Octahedral Cellular Structure using Additive Manufacturing
L. Yang, University of Louisville
(page 651)

Indirect Additive Manufacturing of a Cubic Lattice Structure with a Copper Alloy
J. Mun, J. Ju, J. Thurman, University of North Texas
(page 665)

The BCC Unit Cell for Latticed SLM Parts; Mechanical Properties as a Function of Cell Size
I. Maskery, A.O. Aremu, M. Simonelli, C. Tuck, R.D. Wildman, I.A. Ashcroft, R.J.M. Hague, University of Nottingham
(page 688)

Negative Stiffness Honeycombs for Recoverable Shock Isolation
D.M. Correa, T.D. Klatt, S.A. Cortes, M.R. Haberman, D. Kovar, C.C. Seepersad, The University of Texas at Austin
(page 702)

An Investigation of Thin Feature Generation in Direct Metal Laser Sintering Systems
L. Yang, H. Gong, S. Dilip, B. Stucker, University of Louisville
(page 714)

Design for Additive Manufacturing of Kinematic Pairs
S. Pareek, V. Sharma, R. Rai, University at Buffalo-SUNY
(page 732)

Design for Additive Manufacturing: An Investigation of Key Manufacturing Considerations in Multi-Material Polyjet 3D Printing
N.A. Meisel, C.B. Williams, Virginia Tech
(page 746)

Processing of Metal-Diamond-Composites using Selective Laser Melting
A.B. Spieringsa, C. Leinenbachb, C. Kenelbc, K. Wegenera, aInspire AG, bSwiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, cETH Zurich
(page 764)

Powder-Bed Based 3D Printing of Function Integrated Parts
J. Glasschroeder, E. Prager, M.F. Zaeh, Technische Universitaet Muenchen
(page 775)

An Exploration of Binder Jetting of Copper
Y. Bai, C.B. Williams, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
(page 793)

Stress-Limiting Test Structures for Rapid Low-Cost Strength Assessment
A. Katz, J. Nussbaum, N.B. Crane, C.P. Lusk, University of South Florida
(page 815)

3D Printing Thin Skinned Composites to Achieve the Strength-to-Weight Ratio of Aluminum
D.E. Fly, University of Wisconsin–Stout
(page 830)

Performance and Functionality Based Design Methods for Improved and Novel Aircraft Engine Components for Additive Manufacturing
J. Seppälä, D. Rockel, A. Hupfer, Technische Universitaet Muenchen
(page 837)

3D Printable Wax-Silicone Actuators
J.I. Lipton, S. Angle, H. Lipson, Cornell University
(page 848)

Exploring the Mechanical Performance and Material Structures of Integrated Electrical Circuits within Solid State Metal Additive Manufacturing Matrices
J. Li, T. Monaghan, A. Bournias-Varotsis, S. Masurtschak, R.J. Friel, R.A. Harris, Loughborough University
(page 857)

Additive Manufacturing of Optically Translucent Parts
M. Yuana, D. Bourellb, aBeijing Institute of Technology, bThe University of Texas at Austin
(page 865)

Additive Manufacturing of Directionally Heat Conductive Objects
P.M. Kulkarnia, K.P. Karunakarana, A. Tewaria, F. Legessea, D. Ranaa, A. Bernardb, aIndian Institute of Technology Bombay, bIRCCyN, Ecole Centrale de Nantes
(page 875)

Measurement Systems Comparison on Various Feature Sizes of FDM Parts
D.E. Flya, A. Gradowskia, D. Espalinb, R. Winkerc, J. Raskd, aWisconsin’s Polytechnic University, bUniversity of Texas at El Paso, cStratasys Inc., dBowman Tool and Machining
(page 891)

An Investigation of Standard Test Part Design for Additive Manufacturing
L. Yang, Md.A. Anam, University of Louisville
(page 901)

Finishing of ABS-M30 Parts Manufactured with Fused Deposition Modeling with Focus on Dimensional Accuracy
M. Fischer, V. Schöppner, University of Paderborn
(page 923)

Towards a Sustainable and Economic Selection of Part Candidates for Additive Manufacturing
C. Lindemann, U. Jahnke, T. Reiher, R. Koch, The University of Paderborn
(page 935)

Cyber-Physical Vunerabilities in Additive Manufacturing Systems
L.D. Sturm, C.B. Williams, J.A. Camelio, J. White, R. Parker, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
(page 951)

Experimental Investigation of Process Parameters on 64 Slice Spiral CT Scanner of Medical Models
Y.R. Kumar, A. Manmadhachary, L. Krishnanand, National Institute of Technology Warangal
(page 964)

Mask Projection Microstereolithography of Novel Biocompatible Polymers
P. Lambert, N. Chartrain, A. Schultz, S. Cooke, T. Long, A. Whittington, C. Williams, Virginia Tech
(page 974)

An Experimental Study of Ceramic Dental Porcelain Materials Using A 3D Print (3DP) Process
S. Zhang, H. Miyanaji, L. Yang, A.A. Zandinejad, J.J.S. Dilip, B. Stucker, University of Louisville
(page 991)

Solid Freeform Fabrication of Soft Tissue Simulators for Needle Injection
J.I. Liptonab, A.P. Towb, I. Burbanka, A. Vazquezb, H. Lipsona, aCornell University, bSeraph Robotics
(page 1012)

Minimization of Volumetric Errors in CAD Medical Models Using 64 Slice Spiral CT Scanner
L. Krishnanand, A. Manmadhachary, Y.R. Kumar, National Institute of Technology Warangal
(page 1023)

In Vitro Assessment of Laser Sintered Bioactive Glass Scaffolds with Different Pore Geometries
K.C.R. Kolan, A. Thomas, M.C. Leu, G.E. Hilmas, Missouri University of Science and Technology
(page 1031)

Design Enhancement of Biomedical Scaffolds Made by Selective Laser Melting
M. Speirs, G. Pyka, J.-P. Kruth, J. Luyten, J. Schrooten, M. Wevers, J.Van Humbeeck, University of Leuven (KU Leuven)
(page 1042)

A Biodegradable Polycaprolactone Based Ink Developed for 3D Ink Jetting
Y. Hea, S. Kilsbyb, C. Tucka, R. Wildmana, S. Christieb, H. Yanga, S. Edmondsonc, aNottingham University, bLoughborough University, cManchester University
(page 1052)

Jet-Based 3D Printing of Biological Constructs
R. Xiong, K. Christensen, C. Xu, Y. Huang, University of Florida, Gainesville
(page 1069)

Modeling

Thermal Stresses Associated with Part Overhang Geometry in Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing: Process Parameter Effects
B. Cheng, K. Chou, The University of Alabama
(page 1076)

Modeling of the Moving Induction Heating Used in Weld-Based Addtive Manufacturing
X.W. Bai, H.O. Zhang, G.L. Wang, Huazhong University of Science and Technology
(page 1088)

Influence of Powder Distribution on Process Stability in Laser Beam Melting: Analysis of Melt Pool Dynamics by Numerical Simulations
F.-J. Gürtlera, M. Karga, M. Doblera, S. Kohla, I. Tzivilskyb, M. Schmidta, aFriedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), bKazan National Research Technical University
(page 1099)

Material Molten Time and its Effect on Material Deposition during Electron Beam Selective Melting
C. Guo, W.J. Ge, F. Lin, Tsinghua University
(page 1118)

3-Dimensional Finite Element Modeling of Selective Laser Melting Ti-6Al-4V Alloy
C.H. Fu, Y.B. Guo, The University of Alabama
(page 1129)

A Two Dimensional Analytical Evaluation of Thermal Fields during Metal Laser Sintering Processes
C. Teng, D. Pal, H. Gong, B. Stucker, University of Louisville
(page 1145)

Optimization of Multi-Materials In-Flight Melting in Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) Process
J. Yana, I. Battiatob, G.M. Fadela, aClemson University, bSan Diego State University
(page 1158)

Design Optimization Strategy for Multifunctional 3D Printing
A. Panesar, D. Brackett, I. Ashcroft, R. Wildman, R. Hague, University of Nottingham
(page 1179)

Optimal Melting Interface Tracking in Laser-Aided Powder Deposition Processes
X. Cao, B. Ayalew, Clemson University
(page 1194)

A Comparison of the Computational Speed of 3DSIM versus ANSYS Finite Element Analyses for Simulation of Thermal History in Metal Laser Sintering
K. Zengab, C. Tengab, S. Xub, T. Subletteb, N. Patilb, D. Palab, B. Stuckerab, aUniversity of Louisville, b3DSIM, LLC
(page 1205)

Enhancing Simulations of Additive Manufacturing Processes using Spatiotemporal Multiscaling
D. Palab, N. Patilab, C. Tengab, K. Zengab, S. Xub, T. Subletteb, B. Stuckerab, aUniversity of Louisville, b3DSIM LLC
(page 1213)

New Method for Fast Predictions of Residual Stress and Distortion of AM Parts
N. Keller, V. Ploshikhin, University of Bremen
(page 1229)

A Comparative Finite Element Study of Cubic Unit Cells for Selective Laser Melting
A.O. Aremu, I. Maskery, C. Tuck, I.A. Ashcroft, R.D. Wildman, R.I.M. Hague, University of Nottingham
(page 1238)

Simulation of the Surface Topography on Laser Sintered Polymer Parts
P. Delfsa, A.A. Heraleb, Z. Lia, H-J. Schmida, aUniversity of Paderborn, bIndian Institute of Technology Bombay
(page 1250)

AM Feature and Knowledge Based Process Planning for Additive Manufacturing in Multiple Parts Production Context
Y. Zhang, A. Bernard, IRCCyN, Ecole Centrale de Nantes
(page 1259)

Adaptive Slicing for Multi-Axis Hybrid Plasma Deposition and Milling
X. Wang, H. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Wu, Huazhong University of Science & Technology
(page 1277)

High Resolution Topology Design with Iso-XFEM
M. Abdi, I. Ashcroft, R. Wildman, The University of Nottingham
(page 1288)

Supply Chain Modifications to Improve Additive Manufacturing Cost-Benefit Balance
B. Mohajeria, S.H. Khajavia, T. Nyberga, S.H. Khajavib, aAalto University, bOakland College
(page 1304)

Resource Based Build Direction in Additive Manufacturing Processes
N. Ahsan, A. Habib, B. Khoda, North Dakota State University
(page 1315)

Hybrid Automata in the Context of Additive Manufacturing
J.C. Boudreaux, National Institute of Standards and Technology
(page 1327)

Thermographic Investigation of Laser Metal Deposition
S. Karnati, T. Sparks, F. Liou, Missouri University of Science and Technology
(page 1340)

Optimization of Process Parameters for Reentrant Surfaces in Direct Metal Laser Melting
K. Ashby, Z. Fieldman, P. Kenney, T. Rockstroh, GE Aviation
(page 1351)

Various Topics

Comparing Mechanical and Geometrical Properties of Lattice Structure Fabricated Using Electron Beam Melting
S-I. Parka, D.W. Rosena, C.E. Dutyb, aGeorgia Institute of Technology, bOak Ridge National Laboratory
(page 1359)

The Innovation Station: A 3D Printing Vending Machine for UT Austin Students
J. Kuhna, M. Greenb, S. Bashyama, C.C. Seepersada, aThe University of Texas at Austin, bLeTourneau University
(page 1371)

A Graph Grammar Based Approach to 3D Print and Assemble Furniture
S. Gupta, R. Rai, University at Buffalo-SUNY
(page 1386)

The GE Aircraft Engine Bracket Challenge: An Experiment in Crowdsourcing for Mechanical Design Concepts
W.T. Cartera, D.J. Ernoa, D.H. Abbottb, C.E. Bruckb, G.H. Wilsonb, J.B. Wolfeb, D.M. Finkhousenc, A. Tepperc, R.G. Stevensd, aGE Global Research, bGE Aviation, cGE Corporate, dGrabCAD
(page 1402)

Experimental Analysis on an Additively Manufactured ABS Living Hinge
C. Gribbins, H.M. Steinhauer, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University
(page 1412)

Stereo Vision Based Hybrid Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V in Component Repair Process
R. Liu, Z. Wang, T. Sparks, F. Liou, Missouri University of Science and Technology
(page 1425)

Separation Force Analysis based on Cohesive Delamination Model for Bottom-up Stereolithography Using Finite Element Analysis
F. Liravi, S. Das, C. Zhou, The State University of New York, Buffalo
(page 1432)

Electrostatic Stabilisation of Drop on Demand Bio‐Ink through the Cationic Encapsulation of Cells
M. Benning, K. Dalgarno, Newcastle University
(page 1452)